Ages: birth to 5 years
Testing time: 45 - 60 minutes
The assessment is composed of six subtests that measure interrelated motor abilities that develop early in life. It is designed to assess the motor skills of children from birth through 5 years of age. Profile sheets allow the examiner to show which tasks the child has mastered and their relative strengths/weaknesses. Scores are reported as standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents.
The PDMS-2 can be used by occupational therapists, physical therapists, diagnosticians, early intervention specialists, adapted physical education teachers, psychologists, and others who are interested in examining the motor abilities of young children. Reliability and validity have been determined empirically. The normative sample consisted of 2,003 persons residing in 46 states.
- Reflexes: This 8-item subtest measures a child's ability to automatically react to environmental events. Because reflexes typically become integrated by the time a child is 12 months old, this subtest is only given to children birth through 11 months.
- Stationary: This 30-item subtest measures a child's ability to sustain control of his or her body within its center of gravity and retain equilibrium.
- Locomotion: This 89-item subtest measures a child's ability to move from one place to another. The actions measured include crawling, walking, running, hopping, and jumping forward.
- Object Manipulation: This 24-item subtest measures a child's ability to manipulate balls. Examples of the actions measured include catching, throwing, and kicking. Because these skills are not apparent until a child has reached the age of 11 months, this subtest is only given to children ages 12 months and older.
- Grasping: This 26-item subtest measures a child's ability to use his or her hands. It begins with the ability to hold an object with one hand and progresses up to actions involving the controlled use of the fingers of both hands.
- Visual-Motor Integration: This 72-item subtest measures a child's ability to use his or her visual perceptual skills to perform complex eye-hand coordination tasks such as reaching and grasping for an object, building with blocks, and copying designs.
Fine Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the small muscle systems: Grasping (all ages), Visual-Motor Integration (all ages).
Gross Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the large muscle systems:
- Reflexes (birth-11 months only)
- Stationary (all ages)
- Locomotion (all ages)
- Object Manipulation (12 months and older)
Total Motor Quotient: This composite is formed by a combination of the results of the gross and fine motor subtests. Because of this, it is the best estimate of overall motor abilities.
Psychometrically, the second edition of the PDMS has improved in the following ways:
- All of the new normative data were collected in the Winter of 1997 and the Spring of 1998.
- Characteristics of the normative sample relative to geography, gender, race, and other critical variables are the same as those reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997) and are therefore representative of the current U.S. population.
- The normative information has been stratified by age.
- Studies showing the absence of gender and racial bias have been added.
- Reliability coefficients were computed for subgroups of the normative sample (e.g., individuals with motor disabilities, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, females, and males) as well as for the entire normative sample.
- New validity studies have been conducted; special attention has been devoted to showing that the test is valid for a wide variety of subgroups as well as for the general population.
- Each item was evaluated using both conventional item analyses to choose “good” statistical items and the new differential item functioning analyses to find biased items.
Upgraded features include:
- Profile/Summary Forms enable the examiner to record the child's PDMS-2 scores and graphically display the child's performance in two formats, enabling the examiner to compare the child’s performance on the items he/she has mastered with that of the normative sample.
- Examiner Record Booklets contain all the items to be given to the child. The booklets contain clearly marked entry points to be used to locate the beginning item for each subtest.
- Descriptions of every item, referenced by number within each subtest.
- Peabody Motor Activities Program (P-MAP) is the instruction/treatment program for the PDMS-2. It contains units organized developmentally by skill area.
- Peabody Motor Development Chart provides the examiner with a convenient reference for the motor skills measured by the PDMS-2 and the ages at which 50% of the normative sample performed the skill.
- PC, Mac, and iPad compatible PDMS-2 Online Scoring and Report System reduces scoring and reporting time and errors.
Complete PDMS-2 Kit includes: Examiner's Manual, Guide to Item Administration, 25 Profile/Summary Forms, 25 Examiner Record Booklets, a Peabody Motor Activities Program Manual, a Black and White Peabody Motor Development Chart, and manipulatives, all in a sturdy storage box.
Manipulatives include 1 black shoelace, 6 square beads, 1 wooden pegboard, 3 wooden pegs, 12 1” cubes, 1 large button strip, 1 bottle with cap, 1 formaboard with corresponding shapes, 1 lacing card, 1 measuring tape, 1 roll of 2” masking tape, all in a mesh storage bag with drawstring.
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