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Special Education Acronyms
AAC - Alternative Augmentative Communication
A term that encompasses the communication methods used to supplement or replace speech or writing for those with impairments in the production or comprehension of spoken or written language.
ADA - Americans with Disabilities Act
A wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability.
ADD/ADHD - Attention Deficit/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination. For these problems to be diagnosed as ADHD, they must be out of the normal range for a child's age and development.
APE - Adaptive Physical Education
Adapted Physical Education is physical education which has been adapted or modified, so that it is as appropriate for the person with a disability as it is for a person without a disability.
ASL - American Sign Language
American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex language that employs signs made by moving the hands combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf and is one of several communication options used by people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing.
AT - Assistive Technology
Assistive technology is technology used by individuals with disabilities in order to perform functions that might otherwise be difficult or impossible. Assistive technology can include mobility devices such as walkers and wheelchairs, as well as hardware, software, and peripherals that assist people with disabilities in accessing computers or other information technologies
BD - Behavioral Disorder
Behavior disorders include mental health problems with a focus on behaviors that both identify emotional problems and create interpersonal and social problems for children and adolescents in the course of their development.
CA - Chronological Age
The number of years a person has lived, used especially in psychometrics as a standard against which certain variables, such as behavior and intelligence, are measured. Chronological age is important in assessment because it allows education professionals to use the data they gain from testing and convert it into various types of scores that are used for educational placement or curriculum guides.
CAP - Corrective Action Plan
CAPD - Central Auditor Processing Disorder
A complex problem affecting about 5% of school-aged children where the kids can't process the information they hear in the same way as others because their ears and brain don't fully coordinate.
Cystic Fibrosis
A disease passed down through families that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs, digestive tract, and other areas of the body. It is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in children and young adults. It is a life-threatening disorder.
CP - Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, learning, hearing, seeing, and thinking. There are several different types of cerebral palsy, including spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic, hypotonic, and mixed.
DB - Deaf-Blind
A person who has some degree of loss in both vision and hearing.
DD - Developmental Delay
When your child does not reach their developmental milestones at the expected times. It is an ongoing major or minor delay in the process of development.
DS - Down Syndrome
Down syndrome is a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
ECE: Early Childhood Education
ED: Emotional Disturbance
Conditions which generate behavioral issues.
EI: Early Intervention
A system of services that helps babies and toddlers with developmental delays or disabilities.
ESEA: Elementary and Secondary Education Act
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) emphasizes equal access to education, establishes high standards and accountability, and requires the inclusion of all students with disabilities in the student achievement system. The law authorizes federally funded education programs that are administered by the states. In 2002, Congress amended ESEA and reauthorized it as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).
ESL: English as a Second Language
The use or study of English by speakers with different native languages.
ESY or EYS: Extended School Year or Extended Year Services
FAPE: Free Appropriate Public Education; Families and Advoctates
Mandates that school districts provide access to general education and specialized educational services. It also requires that children with disabilities receive support free of charge as is provided to non-disabled students. It also provides access to general education services for children with disabilities by encouraging that support and related services be provided to children in their general education settings as much as possible.
FAS: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy.
FBA: Functional Behavioral Assessment
A systematic set of strategies that is used to determine the underlying function or purpose of a behavior, so that an effective intervention plan can be developed.
GE: General Education
GT: Gifted and Talented
HI: Hearing Impaired
A partial or total inability to hear.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IEE - Independent Educational Evaluation
An evaluation of a child for the purposes of determining a special education program that is performed by personnel outside the school system
IEP-Individual Education Plan
A written statement for each child with a disability that Is developed, reviewed, and revised according to the requirements of IDEA.
IFSP-Individual Family Service Plan
Part H of IDEA provides services to disabled individuals from birth to age 3, when school systems take over. The IFSP is essentially the IEP for children under the age of 3.
LEA-Local Educational Agency
A public board of education or other public authority legally constituted within a State for either administrative control or direction of, or to perform a service function for, public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district, or other political subdivision of a State, or for a combination of school districts or counties as are recognized in a State as an administrative agency for its public elementary schools or secondary schools.
LRE-Least Restrictive Environment
To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities are to be educated with children who are not disabled. Special classes, separate schooling, or other ways of removing children with disabilities from the regular educational environment should only occur when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes cannot be achieved satisfactorily with the use of supplementary aids and services.
A confidential, voluntary process that allows parties to resolve disputes without formal due process hearing. An impartial mediator helps the parties to express their views and positions and to understand the other’s views and positions. The mediator's role is to facilitate discussion and help parties reach an agreement -- not to recommend solutions or take positions or sides.
MID – Mild Intellectual Disability
Intellectual functioning ranging between an upper limit of approximately 70 to a lower limit of approximately 55 with concurrent deficits in adaptive behavior that significantly limit an individual’s effectiveness in meeting that standards of maturation, learning, personal independence or social responsibility, and especially school performance that is expected of the individual’s age level and cultural group, as determined by clinical judgment.
MOID-Moderate Intellectual Disability
Intellectual functioning ranging from an upper limit of approximately 55 to a lower limit of approximately 40; with deficits in adaptive behavior that significantly limit an individual’s effectiveness in meeting the standards of maturation, learning personal independence or social responsibility, and especially school performance that is expected of the individual’s age-level and cultural group as determined by clinical judgment.
OHI-Other Health Impairment
Limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment that is due to chronic or acute health problems, such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia, and adversely affects a child’s educational performance
OI-Orthopedic Impairment
A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g., club foot, absence of some member, etc.) impairments caused by disease(poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc) and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations and fractures or burns that cause contractures).
OT-Occupational Therapy
Services that are delivered by a qualified occupational therapist and includes: a) improving, developing, or restoring functions impaired or lost through illness, injury, or deprivation; b) improving ability to perform tasks for independent functioning if functions are impaired or lost; and c) preventing, through early intervention, initial or further impairment or loss of function.
PID-Profoundly Intellectually Disabled
Intellectual functioning below approximately 25with concurrent deficits in adaptive behavior that significantly limit an individual’s effectiveness in meeting that standards of maturation, learning, personal independence or social responsibility and especially school performance that is expected of the individual ‘sage-level and cultural group, as determined by clinical judgment.
PT-Physical Therapy
Services that are delivered by a qualified physical therapist. Areas addressed by PT as a related service may include but are not limited to: gross motor developmental skills, gross motor skills, orthopedic concerns, mobility, adaptive equipment, positioning needs and other functional skills which interfere with the student's educational performance. The focus of the intervention should be to improve the student's ability to perform at school, promote improved functional independence and/or to suggest and assist with the implementation of appropriate adaptive equipment and/or accommodations.
Related services
Supportive services that are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education. Related services include transportation, developmental and corrective services, speech-language pathology and audiology services, interpreting services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation (including therapeutic recreation), counseling services (including rehabilitation counseling), orientation and mobility services, and medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes. Related services also include school health services, school nurse services designed to enable a child with a disability to receive a free appropriate public education as described in the child’s IEP, social work services in schools, and parent counseling and training.
SID-Severe Intellectually Disability
Intellectual functioning ranging from an upper limit of approximately 40 to a lower limit of approximately 25 with concurrent deficits in adaptive.
SLD - Specific Learning Disability
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding r in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
SLP-Speech Language Pathologist
Assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent disorders related to speech, language, cognitive-communication, voice, swallowing, and fluency.
Supplemental Aids and Services
Aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes or other education-related settings to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate. Examples of supplemental aids and services might be assistive technologies such as a computer or adapted physical education.
TBI-Traumatic Brain Injury
An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as, cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory, perceptual and motor abilities, psychological behavior, physical functions, information processing and speech. The term does not include brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.
Transition Services
Transition services
VI-Visual Impairment
Impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
Vocational Rehabilitation Agency
A publicly funded state agency that provides direct and indirect services to youth with disabilities as they transition from school to work, in order to maximize their employability, independence and integration into the workplace and the community.
VR- Vocational rehabilitation
A set of services offered to individuals with disabilities designed to enable participants to attain skills, resources, attitudes, and expectations needed to compete in the interview process, get a job, and keep a job.
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